Air pollution constitutes a major health risk : WHO (World Health Organization) estimates that it contributes to 7 million premature deaths per year. Our study aims to evaluate its effects on mortality in the Rhone department (France). It focuses on the measurements of some dangerous pollutants, and demonstrates a significant correlation with air pollution. Indeed, the link between the two phenomena follows a positive linear trend. We end up with a ρ2 = 0.44 for NO2, meaning that 44 % of the mortality is linked to the pollution in NO2. In addition, we were able to show that an increase of 1% of this pollutant induces an increase in mortality of 0.87%. As a result, these results constitute an argument for reducing the use of fossil fuels.